While it is not accessible to in fact prove that God (or any added celestial for that bulk of which there are bags postulated) does not exist, any added than it is accessible to in fact prove that orbiting teapots, pixies, extraterrestrials, demons and ghosts don’t exist, the complete actuality of God can be apparent to be so absurd as to be ‘proof’ aloft a reasonable doubt.
Arguments For God’s Actuality Debunked:
Theists affirmation about eight arguments bold that God exists, but anniversary can be refuted. For the almanac the eight complete arguments are:
* The Kalam Cosmological Argument: This altercation goes as follows. 1) Aggregate that begins to abide has a cause. 2) The Universe began to exist. 3) Accordingly the Universe had a cause. 4) Accordingly God done it! The botheration actuality is that you can’t just bound from footfall three to footfall four. There are another explanations. If there weren’t, every cosmology altercation would acquire to alpha with “In the beginning, God… “. One could appropriately advance that 1) Aggregate that begins to abide has a cause. 2) Lightning begins to exist. 3) Accordingly lightning had a cause. 4) Accordingly Thor done it! For some awe-inspiring reason, theists don’t buy into that sequence. [#]
* Architecture and Fine-Tuning for Life: Activity exists. Activity is complex. Things acquire to be just-so in adjustment for activity to exist. God ensured that things were just-so. However, 99.9999% of the Universe isn’t advised and finely-tuned for life. 99% of all breed on Earth acquire gone the way of the Dodo and Passenger Pidgeon. Further, accustomed the amplitude and bulk of complete acreage in the Universe, it would be hasty if allure and ecology altitude were never just appropriate in a Goldilocks faculty to aftermath and sustain life. Further, there are carriage mechanisms in abode (Panspermia) that can carriage the activity forms that do appear about the Universe. But even with account to architecture and fine-tuning, there are another explanations, a allotment of them chance, the Simulation Hypothesis and the Multiverse Hypothesis. So again, it’s not God done it as a absence position. If God is the absence position, afresh the accessible catechism is who / what advised and fine-tuned the Designer (God)? [#]
* Cold Morality: God is the columnist of cold morality. Without God there wouldn’t be any cold morality. However, chastity isn’t objective, it’s subjective. Chastity depends. Sometimes X is okay; sometimes X is not okay. Further, if you took God’s chastity and followed it to the letter, you’d be arrested in every country able and present and able in many. God is the a lot of abandoned article anytime conceived of in literature. Quite afar from the Old Testament examples, if a animal walks by and sees a adolescent lying face down in a pond, a lot of bodies will try to accomplishment the child. God will just sit aback and do bugger-all. Bodies tend to be way, way, way added moral than God, which isn’t difficult, even for humans. Further, there is no cold chastity aback no two bodies will accede on the chastity issues that underlies every “what if” scenario. If chastity issues were 100% cold the acknowledged systems of this apple would be clear-cut, black-and-white, yet we all apperceive that that is not the case at all. Further again, God doesn’t explain exhibitions by non-humans of moral actions. So area did chastity appear from if not from God? The accustomed change of chastity can be appealing able-bodied summed up by advertence that I’ll watch / blemish your aback if you watch and blemish my back. Cooperation is in your own best and egocentric interest. [#]
* Biological Advice (DNA; aswell consciousness, chargeless will, intentionality, etc.): Activity is complex, accordingly God. Able-bodied not really. Non-life is just chemistry. Activity is just chemistry. Abundant of life’s capital allure is in fact represented by non-life allure – salt, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, urea, assorted sugars, vitamins and minerals, etc. There are no elementary particles and atoms begin in life’s allure set that aren’t aswell allotment and bindle of non-living things. Activity and non-life allotment a commonality – chemistry. So non-life becomes congenital into life, and activity aback into non-life. That’s because chemistry, actinic reactions are a two-way street. For example, hydrogen and oxygen into water; baptize into oxygen and hydrogen. Just because life’s allure tends to be added circuitous allure (DNA, RNA, proteins, amino acids, etc.) doesn’t beggarly it’s not chemistry. The elementary particles, atoms and molecules do NOT behave any abnormally just because they are allotment of a active animal instead of accepting allotment of a non-living structure.
Secondly, any affection associated with activity can aswell be begin in non-living things, examples from metabolism to reproduction to awareness. Can alertness alone appear from consciousness? Now while you acquire consciousness, what created you didn’t acquire consciousness, that it the egg and the abettor that created you. So, alertness develops in bacilli naturally. And if one wishes to adjure Panpsychism, afresh everything, even axiological particles acquire consciousness.
Finally, there is just such a accustomed apparatus aural nature, aural the sciences, even aural animal society, as appearing phenomena. Simple things that do not acquire a acreage acquire that acreage if they hotlink calm and combine. Here’s a simple example: hydrogen dioxide (a baptize molecule) isn’t in itself wet, isn’t a bead of water, a cube of ice, a boiling day, or a billow / fog. But a lot of baptize molecules collectively are wet, can anatomy a bead of water, an ice cube, aftermath a boiling day, and anatomy clouds / fog. One animal does not a animal association make, but accumulate abundant bodies calm and there you acquire a animal society.
* Jesus: The prophecies apropos the advancing of Jesus; the abstinent bearing of Jesus; the miracles attributed to Jesus; the afterlife and awakening of Jesus; the abandoned tomb; all of the assemblage to a adored Jesus; the acceleration of Christianity in the deathwatch of all of that all proves that Jesus was a complete Son of God and accordingly God accept to exist. Alas, not one abnormal affair attributed to Jesus can be apart complete alfresco of the Biblical sources. Religions (and abundant religiously-themed cults) can appear out of around annihilation – Scientology and Mormonism for example. Finally, the arguments for Jesus can’t be all that acute if Judaism and Islam don’t acquire the affirmation for Jesus, and that appropriately applies to the aloft Eastern / Asian religions. Further, it has been acclaimed that ‘modern’ bodies (Homo sapiens) existed for a minimum of about 100,000 years (give-or-take) or about afore God started arrogant His accepting down on Terra Firma (I’m actually blank the Adam and Eve alpine account here). So, bodies existed for a very, very, actual continued time in the complete absence of God and that’s even added the case if it comes to ability of Jesus. So why the gap of a hundred thousand years afore Jesus appears on the scene? Able-bodied the nonsense altercation that theists action up is that that gap amid the aboriginal ‘modern’ animal and Jesus didn’t bulk to a acropolis of beans in agreement of the all-embracing animal population. A lot of bodies who acquire anytime lived and will reside will acquire heard about Jesus. Still, it makes little faculty why God couldn’t acquire ensured that those adverse bodies who lived afore Jesus were somehow enlightened. I mean, according to theists, with God, all things are possible. [#]
* Claimed Acquaintance of God: Claimed airy adventures of God are not affirmation for the actuality of God. Firstly, claimed adventures are just that – personal. Your claimed adventures aren’t able by anyone else. Further, there are abundant physiological and cerebral causes abaft why bodies acquaintance all address of abstract things. Some bodies hallucinate; some bodies are delusional. The bodies anxious aren’t even acquainted of the illusions they acquaintance which are way, way, way added complete than just experiencing God. Intense claimed even airy adventures cover conflicting abductions, witnessing ghosts, talking with Apollo or dozens of added deities or entities, or even in like my case a one-off abutting encounters acquaintance with clear-sighted birds. But just accepting a actual claimed and spiritually affective aberration doesn’t of call accomplish you mentally ill. [#]
* Something Rather Than Nothing: Ah, the abiding question, why is there something rather than nothing? God done it – created something out of nothing. Okay, why is there a God instead of nothing? Area did God appear from? [#]
* If God is Accessible Afresh God Exists: There has to abide the a lot of complete accepting possible. There is no accepting added complete than God. Accordingly God accept to abide not alone in this apple but in all accessible worlds. Of advance the aberration actuality is that applies to anything. There has to abide the a lot of complete accessible dragon or unicorn or brownie or island or blow or teapot. Alas, just because you can brainstorm something doesn’t accomplish it so. Mental absoluteness doesn’t of call beggarly a concrete absoluteness equivalent. [#]
However, in accession to the above, there is one altercation for the actuality of God that I’m actually accepting added than just a bit annoyed of audition and that is that the affidavit of God’s actuality is just because of life, the Universe and in fact everything. I mean, according to this argument, just attending at the moon and the stars and sunsets and the sky and the bubble and the copse and the flowers and the birds (and no agnosticism the adulteration ivy; the smallpox virus; the bubonic affliction (Black Death); the flu; cannibal bacteria; malaria; sexually transmitted diseases (AIDS); rabies; Ebola; abject worms; poisonous snakes, spiders, afraid and scorpions; man-eating sharks; radioactivity; lightning strikes, landslides; earthquakes; tsunamis; volcanoes; blizzards; hurricanes; tornadoes; and even the odd supernova as well), etc. Doesn’t all of that prove God exists? No, it doesn’t. Further, it doesn’t prove that Odin exists or that Isis exists or that Apollo and Aphrodite exists either. For that matter, that’s not affidavit of the actuality of Pixies or even of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Hundreds of religions acquire appear up with hundreds of architect deities who – according to those Accurate Believers – appropriately explains life, the Universe and in fact everything. If you wish the best account for whodunit, try Mother Nature!
What Do Atheists Believe According to Theists?
Theists advance that atheists affirmation instead that annihilation produces everything; non-life produces life; randomness produces fine-tuning / design; anarchy produces information; asleep produces consciousness; and non-reason produces reason. Aback these are all absurd claims, that proves that God done it. It’s time for a afterpiece look.
* Annihilation Produces Everything: In fact this is aswell the theist’s position or what theists claim. God, the uncreated architect created life, the Universe and aggregate out of in fact nothing. Of advance what theists affirmation that atheist’s affirmation is that annihilation (not even a God or celestial of any kind) produced something. While I can’t allege for added atheists, that’s not my position. My acumen is based on the Aboriginal Law of Thermodynamics which includes the ascertainment that bulk / activity can neither be created nor destroyed. That accepting the case, something (matter / energy) has consistently existed and so a something actual morphed / created our Universe. It’s a case of something from something. Of advance that produces an complete backslide but there’s annihilation absurd about the abstraction or the absoluteness of an infinity.
* Non-Life Produces Life: Both activity and non-life are fabricated up of the exact aforementioned axiological particles (quarks and electrons) and elements. So there’s no abstract or even applied acumen why non-life can’t become activity accustomed abundant time, able ecology altitude and acceptable complete estate. Fortunately, the Universe accommodates this leash / leash of conditions. As the accepted adage / ascertainment goes, and it’s a truism, is that we (life) is just acquired from star-stuff. Just because we (scientists) don’t apperceive the complete data of the bureau and bureau this can be able – and there are no agnosticism several believable bureau – doesn’t beggarly that accordingly God done it. Further it was already anticipation that amoebic and bio-chemicals allotment and bindle of active things couldn’t be actinic alfresco of the bodies of those active things. Wrong!
* Randomness Produces Fine-Tuning / Design: The breakthrough mantra states that annihilation that can happen, will happen, accustomed abundant time. Random affairs will accompany oxygen and hydrogen atoms calm to anatomy water. Random acclimate patters will sometimes could could could could could cause temperatures to abatement beneath aught degrees (Centigrade) and the baptize turns into snowflakes or ice crystals that attending actually fine-tuned and designed. Of advance not all of the laws, attempt and relationships in the concrete science aftermath randomness. You can’t acquire just any affectionate of atom or atom or actinic reaction.
* Anarchy Produces Information: That’s appealing abundant in the aforementioned class as randomness and architecture / fine-tuning.
* Asleep Produces Consciousness: That’s in the aforementioned class as non-life bearing life.
* Non-Reason Produces Reason: If non-reason equates to non-life / randomness / anarchy and acumen equates to activity / architecture / information, afresh the affair has already been addressed.
In conclusion, apparently the four best arguments adjoin the actuality of the Christian God is that if you had been built-in and aloft in a altered ability / association afresh you would acquire believed with according confidence in some added celestial or deities. A Christian is an agnostic with account to non-Christian religions; accurate believers aural non-Christian religions are all atheists with account to Christianity. Complete atheists are non-believers in BOTH Christian religions and non-Christian religions. Not all religions / deities can be accurate but all can be false.
The additional acumen is that there are very, very, actual acceptable affidavit why bodies would actualize a God (or added deities) in our image. Firstly a charge for bureau to explain what we can’t explain. Secondly, the charge for an abettor to get us into an afterlife which we tend to desire. Thirdly, the charge to feel special, that a celestial created the Universe just for little old us and who wants a claimed acquaintance with us. Lastly, we are hardwired to acquaint acceptance – billions of billions of acceptance / alpine tales. We are such congenital storytellers that we even acquaint acceptance to ourselves if we beddy-bye – our dreams.
Thirdly, the a lot of axial acumen for the aggregate acceptance in God is a absolutely bread-and-butter one. The complete abstraction of God has been and is today a multi-billion dollar enterprise. So if one eliminates God (and company) from the apple scene, you’d put a rather ample cavity in the bread-and-butter engine that drives the world. So vested interests rule, and so aphorism that God stays accordant – for absolutely bread-and-butter reasons.
Fourthly, we acquire the hiddenness problem. It would assume that God, bold a God of course, went to a lot of time and trouble, accomplishment and energy, to authorize His actuality to a rather tiny bandage of quasi-illiterate dupe / sheep herders in a rather belted bounded arena of the apple bags of years ago. Alas, there’s no affirmation that survives all of His revelations apropos His existence. So, if God wants to access the acceptance of the multitudes in this added modern, global, and accurate age, He actually needs to amend His accessible relations and acquaint His cast in such a way that there is no agnosticism as to His existence. Surely it is not analytic to apprehend the multitudes bags of years after-the-fact to acquire the aforementioned Accurate Acceptance and Acceptance systems in abode as did those semi-illiterate dupe and sheep herders, based on affirmation accessible to them afresh but which has evaporated in the adequateness of time and is no best available. So, if God exists, afresh yes, I’d apprehend Him to accommodate an amend as to what He’s been up to for the endure 3000+ years and appropriately instantly catechumen over seven billion bodies into accepting Him as the One Accurate God. It shouldn’t be difficult. That God charcoal hidden speaks volumes IMHO.
In conclusion, while no individual point proves aloft a reasonable agnosticism that God doesn’t exist, if taken collectively, as a amalgamation deal, afresh I anticipate the Christian theists charge to go aback to the cartoon lath or conceivably accede a career change to something added productive.
[#] These seven arguments anatomy the complete amount of William Lane Craig’s arguments as to why God exists.